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Name: 
 

Art 112 Mid-term



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

The word Renaissance means rebirth. Which of the following was a revived interest during this time?
a.
Hiberno-Saxon manuscripts
b.
Classical culture
c.
Islamic culture
d.
Platonic interpretation of Christianity
 

 2. 

The most devastating natural disaster in Europe during the late 1300s was which of the following?
a.
mad cow disease
b.
the collapse of the linen market
c.
the failure of the Medici banks
d.
the Black Death
 

 3. 

Which of the following cities was considered the rightful capital of the Roman Catholic Church?
a.
Rome
b.
Avignon
c.
Florence
d.
Paris
 

 4. 

Giotto's Enthroned Madonna reflected the new trend toward naturalism and classical modeling of the figures. Which of the following describes this new trend?
a.
The Virgin is slender and fragile
b.
Her cloak is heavily patterned with gold threads
c.
The Virgin is solid and has mass
d.
The figures float as if in the spiritual realm
 

 5. 

Which of the following cities established itself as a major shipping power?
a.
Rome
b.
Padua
c.
Siena
d.
Pisa
 

 6. 

The Triumph of Death is a powerful depiction of death and the folly of pleasure and the inevitability of death. The Dominicans, an order committed to a life of poverty, participated in the design of this work. Based on this which of the following groups would be portrayed in a negative light?
a.
the hermits
b.
the young aristocrats
c.
St. Macarius
d.
the coffin-encased corpses
 

 7. 

What did the humanist cult of fame emphasize?
a.
the importance of creative individuals
b.
the importance of a superior government
c.
the importance of strong leadership
d.
the importance of a good university system
 

 8. 

What are confraternities?
a.
political action groups
b.
lay people dedicated to strict religious observance
c.
protectors of the king
d.
papal guards
 

 9. 

This artist projected on a flat surface the illusion of space. He also projected the illusion of solid bodies moving though that space. This description describes which of the following artists?
a.
Duccio
b.
Pietro Cavallini
c.
Simone Martini
d.
Giotto
 

 10. 

The International Style illustrated rich color, intricate patterns, and weightless figures. Which of the following works depicts this style?
a.
Lamentation
b.
Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints (Maestà)
c.
Seated Apostles (Last Judgment)
d.
Annunciation
 

 11. 

Which of the following is the monastic order that influenced art through its stress on nature and the primacy of personal experience?
a.
Dominican
b.
Benedictine
c.
Cistercian
d.
Franciscan
 

 12. 

Which of the following is the sculptor whose work showed the greatest influence of the forms of classical antiquity?
a.
Nicola Pisano
b.
Giovanni Pisano
c.
Berlinghieri
d.
Pietro Cavallini
 

 13. 

Duccio's work occupies the very center of the sanctuary and must be splendid and rich in conveying its precious message. Which of the following works does this describe?
a.
Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints (Maestà)
b.
Lamentation
c.
Seated Apostles (Last Judgment)
d.
Triumph of Death
 

 14. 

He restored the naturalistic approach to painting as practiced in Antiquity. He inaugurated a method of pictorial expression based on observation. He revealed nature and its visible order. This describes which of the following artists?
a.
Duccio
b.
Pietro Cavallini
c.
Cimabue
d.
Giotto
 

 15. 

The politics of the Italian city-states were turbulent and violent. Governments were overthrown and reinstated. The Sienese government commissioned a series of frescoes offering a new view, the need for a fair and just administration. The artist of note for this series is which of the following?
a.
Pietro Cavallini
b.
Giotto
c.
Duccio
d.
Ambrogio Lorenzetti
 

 16. 

Whose work is best characterized by the use of solid volumes resting firmly on the flat and horizontal surface of this earth?
a.
Giotto
b.
Francesco Traini
c.
Simone Martini
d.
Nicola Pisano
 

 17. 

The Roman fresco tradition can best be seen in the work of which of the following artists?
a.
Cimabue
b.
Cavallini
c.
Duccio
d.
Giotto
 

 18. 

Jan van Eyck's Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride contains many symbols. Which of the following is an allusion to God?
a.
the dog
b.
the bedpost
c.
the whisk broom
d.
the mirror
 

 19. 

In the 15th century, the Dukes of Burgundy wielded power over which of the following counties?
a.
Bavaria
b.
Flanders
c.
Galicia
d.
Lombardy
 

 20. 

Which of the following accounted for the interest in illusionism in French manuscript illumination?
a.
contact with Italy
b.
contact with Constantinople
c.
contact with Bruges
d.
contact with London
 

 21. 

Les Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry like many Books of Hours contains a calendar. This section of this manuscript in particular depicts which of the following?
a.
courtly life
b.
the rosary
c.
seasonal tasks
d.
the ancestry of the Duc de Berry
 

 22. 

The Dukes of Burgundy commissioned art to reinforce their status as rulers in their dynasty. Which of the following best supports this?
a.
The Dukes wanted to reinforce the view of power and sophistication
b.
The Dukes wanted to employ artists
c.
The Dukes wanted to provide art for trade
d.
The Dukes wanted to collect for the sake of collecting alone
 

 23. 

What does the fountain created by Claus Sluter for the cloister of Chartreuse de Champmol symbolize?
a.
everlasting Life
b.
the Well of Moses
c.
flowing water
d.
the Dukes of Burgundy
 

 24. 

Which of the following artists specialized in images of the Madonna?
a.
Hugo van der Goes
b.
Rogier van der Weyden
c.
Hans Memling
d.
Jan van Eyck
 

 25. 

Which of the following is a manifestation of the commitment to private prayer?
a.
a Book of Hours
b.
a small Altarpiece
c.
the construction of small chapels in the city cathedral
d.
an illuminated Psalter
 

 26. 

The Portinari Altarpiece contains medieval pictorial devices, small scenes that stress the meaning and significance of the depicted event. Which of the following is one such medieval pictorial device?
a.
the Arrival of the Magi
b.
the Crucifixion
c.
the Baptism of Christ
d.
the Resurrection
 

 27. 

Which of the following would support the argument that the Well of Moses created by Claus Sluter did not actually spout water?
a.
There was no water source in the Carthusian monastery.
b.
Carthusian commitment to silence would preclude any sound making device.
c.
The Well of Moses was never finished, so it never worked.
d.
The Well of Moses was not the actual device used to spout water.
 

 28. 

Who was the noble patron who commissioned Les Très Riches Heures?
a.
Philip the Good
b.
Giovanni Arnolfini
c.
Tommaso Portinari
d.
Jean, Duke of Berry
 

 29. 

Which of the following was Philip the Bold of Burgundy's most significant commission?
a.
Chartreuse de Champmol
b.
Les Très Riches Heures
c.
Ghent Altarpiece
d.
Portinari Altarpiece
 

 30. 

The Nuremberg Chronicle is a tribute to the new craft of the printed illustrated book. What was the content of the Nuremberg Chronicle?
a.
It was the history of Nuremberg.
b.
It was the history of Germany.
c.
It was the history of the world.
d.
It was the history of the illustrated book.
 

 31. 

Which city derived its wealth from banking and the wool trade?
a.
Dijon
b.
Bruges
c.
Munich
d.
Paris
 

 32. 

Sluter's sculptural works can be characterized as ____.
a.
elegant, using sweeping curvilinear lines
b.
having little physical movement or weight shift
c.
typical of the "soft" style
d.
influenced by the style of Donatello
 

 33. 

One of the most important trading cities of fifteenth-century Netherlands was ____.
a.
Dijon
b.
Bruges
c.
Basel
d.
Amsterdam
 

 34. 

Which of the following artists secularized portraiture?
a.
Tilman Riemenschneider
b.
Dirk Bouts
c.
Hugo van der Goes
d.
Jan van Eyck
 

 35. 

Emerging capitalism led to urban prosperity. This prosperity led to a growing interest in which of the following art types?
a.
secular portraits
b.
reliquaries
c.
small altarpieces
d.
church construction
 

 36. 

Which of the following was NOT included in Jan van Eyck's Ghent Altarpiece?
a.
Adam and Eve
b.
God the Father
c.
Deposition
d.
Adoration of the Lamb
 

 37. 

In Riemenschneider's Assumption of the Virgin, the artist had successfully incorporated which of the following elements?
a.
Italian illusionism
b.
Byzantine spirituality
c.
Roman classicism
d.
Gothic intricacy
 

 38. 

Hugo van der Goes's Portinari Altarpiece is characterized by which of the following?
a.
its joyful angels and muted colors
b.
an exclusive concern with formal problems
c.
a flat, gold background
d.
its rich colors and a somber mood
 

 39. 

Ghiberti's competitive panel for the Baptistery doors of the Florence Cathedral shows classical references that reflect influences of humanism. Which of the following is a classical reference seen on Ghiberti's panel?
a.
the drapery flowing from the body of Isaac
b.
the elongated S curve of Isaac's body
c.
the profusion of cloth puddled around Abraham
d.
the naked figure of Isaac
 

 40. 

Which of the following describes the Medieval narrative method?
a.
presenting several episodes in a single frame
b.
presenting several episodes in sequential frames
c.
presenting several episodes in multiple round frames
d.
presenting several episodes framed by Doric columns
 

 41. 

Which of the following describes Ghiberti's use of the Medieval narrative method in his Baptistery panel?
a.
The figures on either side gracefully turn in opposite directions.
b.
The figures gracefully move in the same direction.
c.
The figures in varying degrees of projection and postures, move gracefully through a convincing stage space.
d.
The center figures point to the sides and include them in the dialogue.
 

 42. 

Which of the following artists actively collected Classical sculpture?
a.
Nanni di Banco
b.
Ghiberti
c.
Brunelleschi
d.
Gentile da Fabriano
 

 43. 

Donatello was commissioned to create five statues for the bell tower (Campanile) of Florence Cathedral. How did he design these figures in relation to the height factor?
a.
each figure bent from the waist and loomed over the viewer
b.
with subtly calculated distortions
c.
he made no adjustments at all
d.
with magnified distortions
 

 44. 

How does Gentile da Fabriano reconcile the Adoration of the Magi with the current trends in Florentine Renaissance art?
a.
He included a classical nude in the predella scene of the Flight into Egypt.
b.
He used a "modern" architectural setting for the Adoration scene.
c.
The background scene of the Adoration is the classical Roman countryside.
d.
He depicted animals from a variety of angles and foreshortened their forms convincingly.
 

 45. 

How did Masaccio create a sense of bulk for his figures in the Tribute Money?
a.
through modeling with a specific light source outside the picture
b.
through modeling with a flat neutral light
c.
through modeling with an identifiable light source within the picture
d.
through modeling
 

 46. 

In Masaccio's Expulsion of Adam and Eve from Eden Adam's feet clearly come into contact with the ground. Which of the following is the interpretation for this?
a.
It marks the Original Sin.
b.
It marks the human presence on earth.
c.
It marks the direction the viewer must proceed in the chapel.
d.
It points the viewer toward the theme of Salvation and Redemption.
 

 47. 

In Masaccio's Trinity, he embodies two principal Renaissance interests. One is realism based on observation. Which of the following is the other?
a.
It is the application of mathematics to pictorial organization of perspective.
b.
It is the use of antique elements as components of the work.
c.
It is the introduction of the donors into the context of the work.
d.
It is using architecture as a frame.
 

 48. 

Which of the following artists was the winner of the famous competition for the bronze doors of the Florence Baptistery?
a.
Donatello
b.
Ghiberti
c.
Brunelleschi
d.
Nanni di Banco
 

 49. 

Which of the following architects wrote influential treatises on painting and architecture?
a.
Brunelleschi
b.
Michelozzo
c.
Alberti
d.
Vitruvius
 

 50. 

Which of the following was the Dominican painter-friar who combined elements of the new style of art with traditional religious devotional works that did not conflict with the content of the works?
a.
Piero della Francesca
b.
Pollaiuolo
c.
Fra Angelico
d.
Fra Filippo Lippi
 

 51. 

The fifteenth-century Italian artist whose work showed the most influence of the International style was ____.
a.
Masaccio
b.
Gentile da Fabriano
c.
Andrea del Castagno
d.
Pollaiuolo
 

 52. 

Which of the following individuals denounced humanist philosophy?
a.
Marsilio Ficino
b.
Piero della Francesca
c.
Savonarola
d.
Lorenzo de' Medici
 

 53. 

The development of linear perspective is generally credited to ____.
a.
Donatello
b.
Brunelleschi
c.
Uccello
d.
Ghiberti
 

 54. 

Which Italian city played the most important role in the development of Renaissance ideas and art forms in the early fifteenth century?
a.
Venice
b.
Florence
c.
Siena
d.
Rome
 

 55. 

Which of the following accounts for the decline in the role Florence played in the support of the arts at the end of the 15th century?
a.
death of Lorenzo de' Medici
b.
incursion of the French armies
c.
death of Masaccio
d.
Savonarola's brief span of power
 

 56. 

Which of the following was the most prominent patron of fifteenth-century Florentine art?
a.
Medici family
b.
Pazzi family
c.
Riccardi family
d.
Gonzaga family
 

 57. 

Which of the following artists departed from the rule of frontality that dominated sculpture since the Middle Ages?
a.
Piero della Francesca
b.
Paolo Uccello
c.
Pollaiuolo
d.
Andrea del Castagno
 

 58. 

The Classical principle of contrapposto, or weight shift, was reintroduced into Western art by the sculptor ____.
a.
Ghiberti
b.
Verrocchio
c.
Pollaiuolo
d.
Donatello
 

 59. 

The duke of Mantua commissioned the frescoes of the Camera degli Sposi from Mantegna for which of the following purposes?
a.
To memorialize courtly life
b.
To create a visual expression of his authority
c.
To challenge the Medici as the leading patron of the arts in Italy
d.
to create a tribute to his wife
 

 60. 

In Perugino's Christ Delivering the Keys of the Kingdom to St. Peter, the artist has reminded the viewer of the link between Constantine, St. Peter, and the basilica of St. Peter. Which of the following is the vehicle used as that reminder?
a.
the triumphal arches in the background
b.
the Pantheon -like temple in the background
c.
the key dangling from Peter's hand
d.
the great marble piazza in the background
 

 61. 

Which of the following describes the style of Fra Angelico?
a.
lush and opulent
b.
scientifically precise
c.
simple and direct
d.
dynamic and complex
 

 62. 

Which of the following artists was most interested in depicting the human body in violent action?
a.
Fra Angelico
b.
Signorelli
c.
Mantegna
d.
Perugino
 

 63. 

Leonardo painted the Virgin of the Rocks, and it is said this work is a masterpiece in expressing emotional states. He modeled the figures with light and shadow-- a technique he learned from earlier works. Which 15th century Italian artist would have influenced Leonardo?
a.
Piero della Francesca
b.
Fra Angelico
c.
Masaccio
d.
Gentile da Fabriano
 

 64. 

In Leonardo's Last Supper, the curved pediment above the head of Christ represents which of the following?
a.
the Parthenon
b.
pagan Rome
c.
a halo
d.
mere ornamentation
 

 65. 

In Leonardo's Last Supper, how did the artist break with traditional iconography?
a.
By the placement of Judas on the same side as Christ and the other Disciples
b.
By including the Magdalene in the role of servant
c.
By including the Virgin seated at the table
d.
By not including Judas at all
 

 66. 

How did Michelangelo's David become a political statement?
a.
The sheer size of the work illustrated the wealth of Florence
b.
David was the patron saint of the Gonzagas
c.
The Pope contributed to the commission
d.
The placement of figure near the west door of the Palazzo della Signoria
 

 67. 

How has Michelangelo portrayed David?
a.
At the moment of victory
b.
With stern watchfulness before the battle
c.
By celebrating the defeat of Goliath
d.
By watching Goliath die
 

 68. 

The Sistine ceiling represents which of the following themes?
a.
the chronology of Christianity
b.
the history of the papacy
c.
the history of Julius II
d.
the chronology of the Early Christian Church in Rome
 

 69. 

In the scene, Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel ceiling God and Adam confront each other in the primordial void. Adam is part of the earth while the Lord transcends the earth. Which of the following interpretations best describes this depiction?
a.
the medieval interpretation of the event
b.
the Late Gothic interpretation of the event
c.
the humanist interpretation of the event
d.
the Italian 15th century interpretation of the event
 

 70. 

What is an Arcadian reverie?
a.
Greek countryside
b.
Florentine countryside
c.
Idyllic place of rural, rustic peace and simplicity
d.
Elysian Fields
 

 71. 

Michelangelo's fascination with the human body was a lifelong pursuit. In his David he presented a perfect body with an attuned mind, prepared and ready for action. Which of the following descriptions of this work would support this statement?
a.
It is a combination of Greek perfection and psychological insight.
b.
It is a combination of Hellenistic excess and restrained emotion.
c.
It is a combination of athletic tension and emotional excess.
d.
It is a combination of athletic tension and psychological insight.
 

 72. 

Increasingly artists of the High Renaissance paid particular attention to the subject's personality and psychic state. This could also be said to describe the portraiture of which of the following artists?
a.
Raphael
b.
Michelangelo
c.
Giulio Romano
d.
Cellini
 

 73. 

His remarkable sense of color and his ability to convey light through color emerge in the altarpiece, Assumption of the Virgin. Who was this artist?
a.
Michelangelo
b.
Raphael
c.
Titian
d.
Giorgione
 

 74. 

Which of the following was the primary church for the Jesuits in Rome?
a.
St. Peter's
b.
Il Gesù
c.
San Giorgio Maggiore
d.
Santa Maria Maggiore
 

 75. 

Paul III convened the Council of Trent in 1545. It was part of which of the following?
a.
the Hundred Years War
b.
the League of Cambrai
c.
the Counter-Reformation
d.
the Hanseatic League
 

 76. 

Who was Raphael's teacher?
a.
Bronzino
b.
Andrea del Sarto
c.
Perugino
d.
Signorelli
 

 77. 

The dome Bramante designed for St. Peter's in Rome would have resembled which of the following?
a.
Pantheon, Rome
b.
Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul)
c.
Florence Cathedral
d.
St. Mark's, Venice
 

 78. 

Of the following, who was one of the most important Roman patrons of Michelangelo?
a.
Lorenzo de' Medici
b.
Federigo da Montefeltro
c.
Julius II
d.
Ludovico Sforza
 

 79. 

Which of the following was one of the favorite compositional devices of painters of the High Renaissance?
a.
a flat triangle
b.
a trapezoid
c.
a pyramid
d.
an oval
 

 80. 

The Neo-Platonic ideals of the Medici circle were most congenial to the thinking of which of the following artists?
a.
Leonardo da Vinci
b.
Michelangelo
c.
Raphael
d.
Bronzino
 

 81. 

In Leonardo's Last Supper, the numerous preparatory sketches and studies he made for the work indicate how carefully he thought about this work as a complete entity representing the entire story and its theme. Based on this which of the following would describe Leonardo's conceptualization of the figures from his Last Supper?
a.
Each figure was individualized.
b.
He grouped the figures in threes and they all expressed the same emotion.
c.
He used the emotions of rage and sorrow for each figure appearing at each end of the table.
d.
All the figures expressed only rage.
 

 82. 

In Raphael's Stanza della Segnatura, he reconciled the philosophies and teachings of Plato and Aristotle. Which of the following have also been reconciled?
a.
Julius II and Lorenzo de'Medici
b.
Rome and Florence
c.
Rome and England
d.
Paganism and Christianity
 

 83. 

The term terribilita is most often used to refer to ____?
a.
Leonardo da Vinci
b.
Michelangelo
c.
Raphael
d.
Andrea del Sarto
 

 84. 

Which sculptor believed that the artist must proceed by first finding the idea-the image-locked in the stone and then release it by chipping away the stone?
a.
Michelangelo
b.
Benvenuto Cellini
c.
Giovanni da Bologna
d.
Christoforo Foppa Caradosso
 

 85. 

Which painter created dynamic compositions, often by means of swirling clouds and fitful light?
a.
Giorgione
b.
Tintoretto
c.
Giovanni Bellini
d.
Raphael
 

 86. 

Which artist painted groups of soaring figures on the dome of Parma Cathedral that seemed to ascend through rings of clouds into the sky itself?
a.
Andrea del Sarto
b.
Correggio
c.
Michelangelo
d.
Titian
 

 87. 

Titian's Meeting of Bacchus and Ariadne was most likely inspired by ____.
a.
Classical art
b.
the tradition of romance poetry
c.
the sermons of Savonarola
d.
Scholastic philosophy
 

 88. 

Which of the following sculptural conventions did Michelangelo use for the figure of Moses in order to create an expression of "awful wrath"?
a.
The straight forward pose
b.
The figure is staring down at viewer
c.
The figure is looming over the viewer
d.
The bulging muscles and swollen veins of the figure
 

 89. 

The major center for artistic development in the High Renaissance was ____.
a.
Florence
b.
Mantua
c.
Rome
d.
Parma
 



 
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